Pet urine has a pH balance between 5 and 6 (this is the acid and proteins that are in pet urine). As the stain (with the acids and proteins) settles into the carpet, it quickly becomes alkaline salt. In the alkaline salt state, the pH balance can be anywhere between 10 and 12. The potency of the urine in the alkaline salt state is what causes significant damage to the flooring of your home. In time, the floors begin to warp and become permanently discolored.
Pet urine affects the carpet fibers if it is not thoroughly removed moments after the accident occurs. Pet urine in the carpet oxidizes and creates a color change. If the stain remains for days or even weeks, the dye structure of the carpet is permanently altered. The staining has permanently changed the very composition of the fibers in the carpeting. This could mean costly replacement for different areas of the home.
Pet urine produces bacteria that grow in damp conditions. With access to a consistent food source, the bacteria can thrive. The gases can be released from the decomposing urine stains and produce an unpleasant odor. If that same area is affected again, the odor worsens. The next source of odor is caused by the chemicals present in the carpet. Neutralizing urine odors is challenging because killing the bacteria alone won’t produce the desired results.
Cleaning the urine spot alone doesn’t get rid of the urine or the odors that are already in the carpet fibers. This is because the urine salts in the carpet are still present long after the visible moisture is removed. Cleaning can actually increase the odor for a period of time. The odor can emanate whenever there is traction against the carpet.